japan bass fishing baits online store


Photo by in-fisherman.com



本日は海外サイトより、”Bass Senses: Hearing & Lateral Line”という記事を引用してご紹介いたします。

引用先:in-fisherman.com ”Bass Senses: Hearing & Lateral Line”by Steve Quinn – July 14, 2020















Until the late 1960s, nearly all lures were built of metal or wood and relied on visual attraction and action to fool fish. In the meantime, scientists in the fields of physics and biology had revealed how sound was capable of long-distance transmission under water and how aquatic creatures used it to communicate, find prey, and avoid danger. For the fishing industry, breakthroughs in using sound to catch fish began in the late 1950s. In-Fisherman Editor in Chief Doug Stange recalls coming across a so-called “fish call” in a mail-order catalog produced by George Herter. “As I recall,” Stange says, “it was basically a small can with BBs inside, attached to a string so you could lower it into the water. You activated it by pulling the string, which shook the BBs. Fishing from a pubic dock on Lake Okoboji in Iowa, I became convinced that it worked. When the bite slowed, its owner would shake it and the perch and sheepshead would start biting again.”


釣り業界では、1950年代後半に音を使ってバスを釣るという画期的なことを始めました。 当サイトの編集長であるダグ・スタンジは、ジョージ・ハーターの釣具の通販カタログで、いわゆる「フィッシュコール」が掲載されていたことを思い出します。 「私が覚えている限りでは」とスタンジは言います。「それは基本的にはベアリングボールが中に入った小さな缶で、ひもが付いてて水中に沈めることができました。この紐を引いて中のボールを揺さぶることで魚を活性化しました。アイオワ州のオコボジレイクにある桟橋のシェードで釣りをしていて、これが機能していることを確信しました。バイトが遠のいたと感じた時、持ち主が紐を振ると、パーチなどがまたバイトした来たのです。」

Image by in-fisherman.com


Development of the Cordell Hot Spot and Bill Lewis Rat-L-Trap lipless lures inaugurated the era of rattling baits, and anglers bought them up as fast as they could be produced. And many lipless rattlers remain top sellers 50 years later, due to their sound production, flash, and the lower-frequency vibrations they also produced. Lures that present a spectrum of sound within the hearing range of bass often produce outstanding catches, especially when bass are grouped and in a feeding mood. I’ve experienced this many times, when noisy, erratic lures outproduce more subtle options. But there can be too much of a good thing. After initial success with noisy lures, bass sometimes seem to become conditioned to them and respond less positively. Waters facing intense fishing pressure are most prone to these effects. You may have noted it after using a favorite lipless lure regularly on a small body of water. This effect has been clearly demonstrated in a laboratory setting, notably at Berkley’s science facility in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Dr. Keith Jones, head fish behaviorist there, found that naive bass living in a rather sterile environment (a giant tank), quickly learned to ignore hookless hardbaits towed through their territory. A few strikes that didn’t reward them with food were enough to change their attitude, even without being hooked. Many field studies have found that fishing pressure reduces catch rates of bass, even when they’re all released. Caught and released bass tend to be less eager to bite again, though there is a remarkable range in catchability among members of a bass population. Fishing experiences yield only observational evidence, not scientific data, yet they can serve as the basis for human learning about the behavior of bass and how they can be caught in various situations. Rick Clunn’s victory on the Arkansas River at the 1984 Bassmaster Classic serves as a notable early example of the effects of sound on the catchability of bass. He’d found a huge group of bass along submerged ledges and had been catching big limits with a Bomber 6A, a crankbait that produces a distinct low-frequency knocking sound. On the last morning of the tournament, three passes along the most productive structures produced not a bite. Avoiding panic, Clunn switched to a silent lure, a Rapala #7 Shad Rap. The lure switch worked like a light switch and he boated 28 pounds to triumph easily. According to Clunn, he’d switched lures to offer a more subtle action. “I’d initially thought the difference was in the more subtle wiggle of the Shad Rap,” he recalled. “But in the years since, I’ve confirmed to myself that on many occasions lure sound production is the key factor in getting bass to bite. When bass spurn noisy baits, offer them something that produces minimal sound.” Veteran Mark Davis had a similar experience on the last day of the 1995 Bassmaster Classic at High Rock Lake, North Carolina. “I had to switch to a silent lure when they quit biting the rattling lure that had been working well,” he says. “I think sound production, or lack of it, is critical in selecting lures for a situation.”




これら釣りの経験は科学的なデータではなく観察の証拠のみになってしまいますが、バスの行動やさまざまな状況でどのように釣るのかということは、釣り人にとっては学習の基礎として役立ちます。 1984年のアーカンソーリバーでのバスマスタークラシックで優勝したリッククランは、バスが捕えられる音の影響について注目すべき初期の例としての役割を果たしています。

彼は水中の棚に沿って大きなバスの群れを見つけ、ボーマー6A(低周波の大きなノッキングサウンドを出すクランクベイト)でビッグバスのリミットを揃えていました。しかしトーナメント最終日の朝、最も釣れていたストラクチャーでバイトが出ない。パニックを回避するため、クランはサイレントルアーであるラパラ・シャッドラップ7に切り替えました。このルアーチェンジは照明のスイッチのように機能し、彼は優勝ウェイトとなる28ポンドのバスをウェイインしました。クランによれば、彼はよりフィネスなアクションとなるようなルアーチェンジをしたと言います。 「私は当初、シャッドラップのフィネスなアクションが効いたのだと思っていました」と彼は思い出します。 「しかし数年後、ルアーの生み出す音がバスがバイトするための重要な要素であると考えました。バスがうるさいルアーで釣れた後は、音の出ないものを試してみてください。」

ベテランのマーク・デイビスは、ノースカロライナ州のハイロック湖での1995年のバスマスタークラシックの最終日に同じような経験をしました。 「それまで釣れていたラトル入りのルアーにバイトが出なくなり、私はサイレントルアーに切り替えなければなりませんでした」と彼は言います。 「状況に応じてルアーを選択するならば、音が出るのか、または出ないのかを考えることが重要だと思います。」

Image by in-fisherman.com


Under water, movement of water, like that produced by nearby fish, currents, wind, or human activity is considered an acoustic phenomenon, as the resulting compression waves emanate from the source and move outward. This physical characteristic of sound led to evolution of a lateral-line system in fish and aquatic amphibians. This sensory organ allows them to detect and interpret underwater vibrations and sounds of the lowest frequencies. This system works in conjunction with the inner ears of fish to decipher the direction and meaning of sounds. It’s easily observed on the sides of bass and other fish as a series of pores extending from the head to the tail. Lab studies published in 2000 by John New and in 2012 by Jayne Gardner and Philip Motta showed that captive bass could feed successfully when blinded. New’s studies took place in the total absence of light detectable by bass, where infrared illumination (invisible to fishes in the sunfish family) allowed the scientists to watch bass feeding. Instead of the directed, mouth-open charges that characterized feeding in daylight, some largemouths slowly turned toward a baitfish and approached it, followed by a rapid expansion of the mouth to accomplish suction feeding. Others hunkered near bottom until a preyfish approached close enough to be engulfed by this vacuuming strike, which is effective only in a range of a few inches. These bass had to feed using only their lateral-line sense, which allowed them to be successful in aquarium surroundings. I’ve caught a couple of double-blind bass in my 60 years of fishing and they’ve been severely emaciated. We know from other studies that without sight or a lateral-line capability, bass cannot feed at all. Olfaction and a sense of taste are important senses for bass feeding, but not for finding and capturing prey. Experts in fish sensory mechanisms have separated underwater sound into far-field effects, which are detected with the inner ear, and near-field effects, which the lateral line perceives and interprets. As the term suggests, fish must be close to the source to detect near-field sound, probably within several feet in the case of bass. It’s the mechanism by with bass approach a sinker that cascades into a patch of vegetation where a fish is holding. This water disturbance can provoke a feeding response from a nearby bass. Bass rely on this sense particularly when feeding at night or when waters are murky enough to limit visual range to a few feet, not an uncommon situation in silty reservoirs or fertile ponds. Recent research has pointed out that fish species detect and can follow the trail of fish that have just passed, perhaps identifying its species and size, and whether it’s weak or wounded, which would make it a prime target. As fish swim, they create hydrodynamic vortices that can be seen by adding dye to a fish tank. This detection comes via the lateral line, and provides a advantage for anglers. Lures create their own trails though the water, some more lifelike than others. At In-Fisherman, we’ve often hypothesized that the reason predators respond so strongly to swimbaits is because the low-frequency trails left in their wake. We often see bass, walleyes, and pike with the entire swimbait within their mouths. They didn’t feel the need to nip or bump to believe it was the real deal, but unhesitatingly inhaled it. Other lures produce low-frequency vibrations that bass detect at close range, which can convince them to bite—the subtle wiggle of a craw’s pincers on the back of a jig, as an angler gives it a subtle shake; the deadly pause with a jerkbait or topwater lure that causes a following fish to commit to striking; or the pulse of a big Colorado-blade spinnerbait helicoptering down a breakline. These lures can be especially effective when bass rely less on their sense of sight, more on other senses, notably the lateral line. They must be close to the lure to begin with, then may approach the object of interest even further, using the lateral line to analyze the vibrations. A lure can either pass or fail the test at this point, and we anglers have no idea how many big bass have come close to striking, but refrained, due to some warning sign.
Image by in-fisherman.com


2000年にジョン・ニュー氏が、2012年にはジェイニー・ガードナー氏とフィリップ・モッタ氏によって発表された研究室の研究では、目が見えない状態でもバスはちゃんとフィーディングしていることを示しました。 ニュー氏の研究は、バスに見える光がまったくない状態で行われました。赤外線照明(サンフィッシュ科の魚には見えない)により、科学者たちはバスのフィーディングを観察することができました。日光の下でのフィーディングの時のように、口を開けたままベイトフィッシュに近づくのではなく、一部のラージマウスバスはゆっくりとベイトフィッシュの方に向き、それに近づき、急に大きな口を開けて吸いこむようなフィーディングを行いました。他のバスたちは、掃除機をかけるように、1回で飲み込むのに十分に近づくまで、ボトム付近を探し回りました。これには数センチの範囲まで近付かなければなりません。このバスは、側線の感覚だけを使用してフィーディングする必要があり、この実験環境では成功することができました。私は60年間のバス釣りにおいて2回ほど盲目のバスを釣ってきましたが、彼らはひどく痩せていました。他の研究から、バスは視力や側線の機能がないと、まったくフィーディングができないことがわかっています。嗅覚と味覚もバスがフィーディングするために重要な感覚ですが、獲物を見つけて捕獲するための感覚ではありません。



この検出は側線を介して行われますが、アングラーにはメリットをもたらします。ルアーは水を介して独自の痕跡を残します。 当サイトでは、バスがスイ​​ムベイトに非常に強く反応する理由は、低周波の通過跡ができたためだと仮定しました。バス、ウォールアイ、パイクなどは、スイムベイト全体を丸呑みしています。彼らは口の中に入れるまで本物だと思い込み、ためらうことなく吸い込んでいます。



Photo by in-fisherman.com